Species of the genus Dunaliella are the dominant primary biomass producer for many hyper-saline lagoons... 2. Trends Biochem. and Haug, A. Often, new isolates of … Not logged in D. salina could rapidly increase or decrease glycerol contents to adapt to hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic environments. A large transcriptome database of D.salina during the adjustment, exponential and stationary growth phases was generated using a high throughput sequencing platform. Some strains are noncarotenogenic while other strains may respond differently to applied growth conditions and produce enhanced carotenoid levels. (1994) Utilization of amiloride analogs for characterization and labeling of the plasma membrane, Latorella, A. H. and Vadas, R. L. (1973) Salinity adaptation by, Lers, A., Levy, H. and Zamir, A. and Popova, L.G. (1985) Glycerol and other carbohydrate osmotic effectors. Here we describe the occurrence of unique gene families, expansion of gene families, or gene losses that might be linked to osmoadaptive strategies. They lack a rigid polysaccharide cell wall, having instead a thin elastic plasma membrane. In: General and applied aspects of halophilic microorganisms. (1982) Characterization of an invertebrate transferrin from the crab, Katz, A., Kaback, R. and Avron, M. (1986). © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Salinity: Environment - Plants - Molecules Brown, A.D. (1990) Microbial Water Stress Physiology, Principles and Perspectives, John Wiley and sons, Chichester, England. Dunaliella is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). Its di‐domain glycerol‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) isoform is likely to underlie the rapid production of the osmoprotectant glycerol. nutraceutical applications, Dunaliella is gaining attention as a potential candidate in algal biotechnology 13. (1989) Lipid characterization of an enriched plasma membrane fraction of, Pick, U. Phycologia 36: 345-350. (1991) A 150kD cell surface protein is induced by salt in the halotolerant green alga, Sekler, I. Gläser, H.U. 5, 183–199. Introduction. Primary structure and effect of pH on the expression of the plasma membrane H, Zelazny, A., Shaish, A. and Pick, U. (1991) Effect of salinity and inorganic carbon utilization and carbonic anhydrase activity in the halophtolerant alga. Dunaliella salina extract is an ideal ingredient in skin care because it’s full of active ingredients. M. and Fulii, T. (1996) A sodium pump in the plasma membrane of the marine alga, Watanuki, T., Ohno, M. and Nakamura, S. (1987) Growth characteristics of, Weiss, M., Sekler, I. and Pick, U. Adaptation to extreme salinity involves short-term and long-term responses. Detection of genes with eukaryotic gene structures predicted to code for the bacterial-type phytoene desaturases (CrtI). Materials and methods. (1993) Cbr, an algal homolog of plant early light-induced proteins, is a putative zeaxanthin binding protein. Whereas intracellular sulfate was depleted, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonium increased. Borowitzka, M.A. Science, Heurers, H.A., Heubers, E., Finch, C.A. Levy, H., Tal, T., Shaish, A. and Zamir, A. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. and Borowitzka, L.J. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. (1984) Ionic regulation of the halotolerant alga, Einspahr, K.J., Maeda, M. and Thompson Jr., G.A. Upon osmotic shock, the cells transiently and rapidly decreased or increased in size within minutes and slowly over hours acquired their original cell size and volume. Marine Chem. The salt-tolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina can survive both hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock. known, Dunaliella salina is a unicellular, halotolerant green alga; it has the unique ability to survive in a wide range of salt conditions, from 0.05 mol/L NaCl to 5.5 mol/L NaCl. In milder conditions, chlorophyll pigments make the cells look yellow to green. Abstract. Further genome-based analysis of isoprenoid and carotenoid metabolism revealed duplications of genes for 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and phytoene synthase (PSY), with the second gene copy of each enzyme being clustered together. Unable to display preview. Borowitzka, L.J. Dunaliella maintains osmotic balance at high salinities by synthesis of intracellular glycerol. 54.36.166.83. Gilles, R. and Guiles-Baillien, M.) Springer Verlag/ Berlin Heidelberg. 9–14. It provides a range of trace minerals and nutrients. Not affiliated pp 97-112 | The biflagellate cells grow best at salinities of about 1.5 M (3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2020.101990. Cell size distribution differs significantly in the cultures grown in the salinity range from 1.5 to 15 % NaCl. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is a model for stress tolerance and is used commercially for production of beta-carotene (=pro-vitamin A). To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to … Balnokin, Y.V. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. (1991) The microbia of saline lakes of the Vestfold hills, Antarctica. We discovered multiple unique genes coding for several of the homologous superfamily of the Ser-Thr-rich glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored membrane family and of the glycolipid 2-alpha-mannosyltransferase family, suggesting that such components on the cell surface are essential to life in high salt. Gene expansion was found in families that participate in sensing of abiotic stress and signal transduction in plants. Sass, E. and Ben-Yaakov, S. (1977) The carbonate system in hypersaline solutions: Dead Sea brines. A structurally novel transferrin-like protein accumulates in the plasma membrane of the unicellular green alga, Fisher, M., Zamir, A. and Pick, U. Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. A salt-induced 60-kilodalton plasma membrane protein plays a potential role in the extreme halotolerance of the alga, Fisher, M., Gokhman, I., Pick, U. and Zamir, A. In studies of the outstanding salt tolerance of the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina , we isolated a cDNA for a salt-inducible mRNA encoding a protein homologous to plant β-ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthases (Kcs). Multiple comparative analyses have found only small differences of mostly unknown significance. Maeda, T., Wurgler-Murphy, S.M. Sadka, A., Lers, A., Zamir, A. and Avron, M. (1989). (1982) Effects of sodium chloride on the plasma membrane of halotolerant. (1995) Structural features that stabilize halophilic malate dehydrogenase from an archeobacterium. Adaptation of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae) to growth on NH4' as the sole nitrogen source. Adaptations of Halophiles to their environment 13. We postulate that a second broader glycerol cycle exists that also connects to photorespiration, thus extending the previously described glycerol cycle. Brown, F.F., Sussman, I., Avron, M. and Degani, H. (1982) NMR studies of glycerol permeability in lipid vesicles, erythrocytes and the plasma membrane of the halotolerant green alga, Chitlaru, E. and Pick, U. These microsomal enzymes catalyze the condensation of malonyl-CoA with acyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting step in fatty acid elongation. Rodriguez-Valera (ed.) D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. It is a recognized model organism for studying plant adaptation to high salinity (Oren, 2005; Gong et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2015; Arroussi et Han, J. Lee, J.D., Bibbs L. and Ulevitch, R.J. (1994) A MAP kinase targeted by endotoxin and hyperosmolarity in mammalian cells. (1991) Co-regulation of a gene homologous to early light-induced genes in higher plants and B-oaroteno biosynthesis in the alga. Katz, A., Bental, M., Degani, H. and Avron, M. (1991), Katz, A., Pick, U. and Avron, M. (1992) Modulation of the, Katz, A., Kleyman, T.R.and Pick, U. (1986) On the mechanism of rapid plasma membrane and chloroplast membrane expansion in. This is a preview of subscription content. Dunaliella salina is a bacterium that is able to live in aqueous solutions with such high salt concentrations that the salt cannot fully dissolve. The unicellular halotolerant green alga Dunaliella is unique in its ability to adapt to most hypersaline ecosystems. Dunaliella produces β-carotene in high amounts, up to 12% of dry matter. genesis and adaptations to life in high-salinity environments. (1997) Activation of a 74 kDa plasma membrane protein kinase by hyperosmotic shocks in the halotolerant alga, Curtain, C.C., Looney, F.D., Regan, D.L. D. salina was able to adapt to 6 μm sulfate; under these conditions, the cells showed reduced growth and photosynthetic rates. The unicellular alga Dunaliella is unique in its ability to adapt to extreme environmental conditions. Life in high salinity environments poses challenges to cells in a variety of ways: maintenance of ion homeostasis and nutrient acquisition, often while concomitantly enduring saturating irradiances. Frolow, F., Harel, M., Sussman, J.L., Mevarech, M. and Shoham, M. (1996). J. Biol. (1988) Concurrent changes in, Enhuber, G. and Gimmler, H. (1980) The glycerol permeability of the plasma membrane of the halotolerant green alga, Finel, M., Pick, U., Selman-Reimer, S. and Selman, B.R. We characterized the metabolic processes in D. salina … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. and Gimmler, H. (1998). Dunaliella salina is the popular microalga for β -carotene production. and Pick, U. The unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina is well adapted to salt stress and contains compounds (including β-carotene and vitamins) with potential commercial value. Variations in salinity and nitrate concentration of the growth medium were responsible for changes in growth rate, cell volume, pigment concentration, light harvesting efficiency and cell carbon and nitrogen content in Dunaliella viridis. Insights into protein adaptation to a saturated salt environment from the crystal structure of a halophilic 2Fe-2S ferredoxin. Firstly, the lack of cell wall allows the cell to easily expand and contract to maintain liveable … Part of Springer Nature. Genes were identified coding for proteins potentially responsible for unique adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. (1987) Stoichiometry and turnover of photosystem II polypeptides, FEBS Lett. A critical examination of the role of, Sadka, A., Himmelhoch, S. and Zamir, A. (1991) Characterization of a plasma membrane ATPase from the extremely acidophilic alga, Sekler, I. and Pick, U. (1997). Avron, M. (1986) The osmotic components of halotolerant algae. 2015 Jun;112(6):1111-21. doi: 10.1002/bit.25526. Download : Download high-res image (121KB)Download : Download full-size image. Nature Structural Biol. Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. The unicellular halotolerant green alga Dunaliella is unique in its ability to adapt to most hypersaline ecosystems. Genomic adaptations of the green alga Dunaliella salina to life under high salinity 1. High salinity induces enhanced synthesis of two major plasma membrane proteins: a transferrin-like protein and a carbonic anhydrase, which mediate acquisition of Fe3+ ions and CO2, whose availability is greatly diminished at high salinity. Franzmann, P.D. (1991) Regulation of glycerol synthesis in response to osmotic changes in, Chitlaru, E., Seger, R. and Pick, U. Discovery of a novel gene cluster coding for a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and a phytoene synthase (PSY). Moreover, we identified two genes predicted to code for a prokaryotic-type phytoene desaturase (CRTI), indicating that D. salina may have eukaryotic and prokaryotic elements comprising its carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. additional mechanisms and molecular adaptations enabling the outstanding salt tolerance of Dunaliella, the organism and its components. In brief, our genomic data provide the basis for further gene discoveries regarding sensing abiotic stress, the metabolism of this halophilic alga, and its potential in biotechnological applications. Nature, Mueller, W. and Wegmann, K. (1978) Sucrose biosynthesis in, Peeler, T.C., Stephenson, M.B., Einspahr, K.J. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) and similar hypersaline strains have biflagellated, pear-shaped cells. T he halotolerant green alga Dunaliella salina Teodoresco is the type species of the Dunaliella genus (class Chlorophyceae)(1, 2). D. salina is an example of a(n) ... What evolutionary adaptations might the pesticide-eating bacteria have that allow them to be useful in … Table 1: Habitats and distribution of some of the species of genus Dunaliella Species Distribution Habitats Dunaliella salina Africa, America, Asia, Australia, Europe Salt Lakes, Evaporation ponds of Salterns, Hypersaline salt (1994). These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. The reason Dunaliella is able to be so halo-tolerant is due to its very effective osmoregulatory process. Possible involvement of fatty acid elongation in the salt tolerance of D. salina A salt-inducible gene from D. salina encoded a protein … Thus, Dunaliella salina is a hyper-halotolerant organism found in high densities in saline lakes. The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and at present a total of 29 species, as well as a number of varieties and forms, are recognized (Massyuk, 1973). D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β … Plenum Press, New York, pp. Maeda, M. and Thompson Jr., G.A. Download preview PDF. and Saito, H. (1994) A two-component system that regulates an osmosensing MAP kinase cascade in yeast. One example is the patched family of the Sonic Hedgehog receptor proteins, supporting a previous hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for sensing changes in salinities in D. salina. Dunaliella is a unique unicellular species of algae harvested from the Dead Sea containing rich concentrations of carotenoids (mainly Beta-Carotene), antioxidants and essential vitamins . Identification of expansion of the gene family coding for Sonic Hedgehog receptor-related proteins. 188, 68–72. Chem. There is still a growing demand for the best strain identification and growth conditions optimization for maximum carotenoids production. ... Biofuel production • The halophilic alga Dunaliella salina commercial source of β-carotene and as a potential source of glycerol production, may also be considered as the raw material for biofuel production. (1984) Purification and characterization of a glycerol-resistant CF, Fisher, M., Pick, U. and Zamir, A. Rats were fed a special diet to increase their cholesterol and triglycerides, which led to increased antioxidant activity and increased lipid peroxidation. and Ivancic, N.M. (1983) Changes in the ordering of lipids in the membrane. Fujiwara, S., Fukuzawa, H., Tachiki, A. and Miyachi, S. (1990). We also investigated genome-based capabilities regarding glycerol metabolism and present an extensive map for core carbon metabolism. A salt-resistant plasma membrane carbonic anhydrase is induced by salt in, Fisher, M., Gokhman, I., Pick, U. and Zamir, A. (1996). Dunaliella salina, is the most halotolerant eukaryotic photosynthetic organism known to date [14,15] since it shows a remarkable degree of adaptation to a variety of salt concentrations and it accumulates large amounts of carotenes under extremely stressful conditions such as high salinity, low nitrogen levels, and high solar radiation . In this rat study, researchers looked at Dunaliella salina ’s effect on high cholesterol and deiodinase, an enzyme involved in thyroid hormone production. (1992) ATPases and ion transport in, Pick, U., Karni, L. and Avron, M. (1986) Determination of ion content and ion fluxes in the halotolerant alga, Pick, U. and Weiss, M. (1991) Polyphosphate hydrolysis within acidic vacuoles in response to amine-induced alkaline stress in the halotolerant alga, Pick, U., Zeelon, O. and Weiss, M. (1991) Amine accumulation in acidic vacuoles protects the halotolerant alga, Popova, L., balnokin, Y., Dietz, K.J. (1993) Purification and properties of a plasma membrane H, Sheffer, M., Fried, A., Gottleib, H.E., Teitz, A. and Avron, M. (1986) Lipid composition of the plasma membrane of the halotolerant alga, Shono M., Hara, Y. Wada. (1994) The ATP-driven, Ben-Amotz, A. and Avron, M. (1973) The role of glycerol in osmotic regulation of the halophilic alga, Booth, W.A. The presented draft genome of the genuine strain CCAP19/18 will allow investigations into metabolic processes involved in regulation of stress responses, including carotenogenesis and adaptations to life in high-salinity environments. (1989) Characterization of soluble and membrane-bound forms of a vanadate-sensitive ATPase from plasma membranes of the halotolerant alga, Weiss, M., and Pick, U. Dunaliella Salina is the best source in nature of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and lycopene. It is a whole food supplement. Long-term adaptive response to high-frequency light signals in the unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote Dunaliella salina Biotechnol Bioeng . The unicellular halotolerant green alga Dunaliella is unique in its ability to adapt to most hypersaline ecosystems. Structure and differential expression of two genes encoding carbonic anhydrase from, Gläser, H.U., Sekler, I. and Pick, U. Sci. (1995) Plasma membrane sterols are essential for sensing osmotic changes in the halotolerant alga, Salinity: Environment - Plants - Molecules. D. salina is halotolerant, thriving in extreme saline envi-ronments [3], but also because it can produce large quan-tities of β-carotene (up to 10% of the cell's dry weight) in lipid globules located within the chloroplast [5,6]. Dunaliella salina has an exceptional ability to thrive even in saturated brine solutions. Dunaliella antarctica thrives at subzero temperatures and some strains of D. salina can tolerate high light intensities. Dunaliella Salina is a micro algae species. 30. Dunaliella has been extensively studied due to its intriguing adaptation to high salinity. and Martin, W.A. In: Transport processes, ions and osmoregulation (ed. The effect of sulfur limitation on the partitioning of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur was investigated in Dunaliella salina . Dunaliella effectively excludes Na+ ions via two putative Na+ transporters. The alga D. salina strain CCAP 19/18 was obtained from the … Dym, O. Mevarech, M. and Sussman J.L. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. (1988). This ability has made it a model organism for studying responses to abiotic stress factors. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. Furthermore, Dunaliella is more tolerant to fuel oil contamination compared with other planktonic algae ( Brown and Borowitzka 1979 ). It possesses Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, Photoprotection, Antiproliferative and Chemopreventive effects. (1997). Cite as. Regulation of glycerol synthesis involves activation of plasma membrane protein kinases. Regulation of glycerol synthesis involves activation of … We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Dunaliella. The chloroplast of Dunaliella also has an eyespot that sits at an anterior peripheral position and is made of one to two rows of lipids. and Thompson Jr., G.A. Science, Ehrenfeld, J. and Cousin, J.L. Here are some Dunaliella salina benefits: Protects Against Free Radicals – Dunaliella salina extract is rich in antioxidants, which help fight free radicals that damage skin and cause it to age prematurely. (1998) Iron uptake by the halotolerant alga, Fontana, D.R. and Beardall, J. Dunaliella maintains osmotic balance at high salinities by synthesis of intracellular glycerol. The glycerol content declined 52.05% when salinity was changed from 2.0 to 0.5 M NaCl, and the glycerol content increased 43.61% when salinity was increased from 2.0 to 5.0 M NaCl. (1990) Indications for a K. Gounaris, N., Pick, U. and Barber, J. This microalga is a natural source of carotenoids for some shrimps. There doesn’t seem to be a general, easy-to-understand, intuitive explanation of thermophiles’ structural stability at high temperatures. The former include osmotic adjustment by accumulation of large amounts of intracellular glycerol and efficient elimination of Na + ions by plasma membrane transporters. Both proteins are salt-resistant and are structurally modified with respect to mesophilic protein counterparts. Participate in sensing of abiotic stress factors salinities by synthesis of intracellular glycerol and other carbohydrate osmotic effectors cell distribution! 1.5 to 15 % NaCl, a which led to increased antioxidant activity increased! And ads to increased antioxidant activity and increased lipid peroxidation the reason Dunaliella is gaining attention a... Antiproliferative and Chemopreventive effects of glycerol synthesis involves activation of plasma membrane sterols essential! N.M. ( 1983 ) Changes in the cultures grown in the unicellular alga Dunaliella salina ( Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae... In high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure Perspectives, John and... 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Perspectives, John Wiley and sons, Chichester, England special diet to their... Biosynthesis in the halotolerant alga, Sekler, I. Gläser, H.U GPDH isoform! Anhydrase from, Gläser, H.U., Sekler, I. and Pick, U and other osmotic. Strains are noncarotenogenic while other strains may respond differently to applied growth conditions and produce carotenoid. To increase their cholesterol and triglycerides, which led to increased antioxidant activity and increased lipid peroxidation to %..., I. and Pick, U and not by the halotolerant alga, Fontana,.... Sekler, I. and Pick, U naked green alga Dunaliella salina carbon., Ehrenfeld, J. and Cousin, J.L maintains osmotic balance at high salinities by of... Environment - plants - Molecules pp 97-112 | Cite as dehydrogenase ( GPDH ) isoform is to! Used in cosmetics and dietary supplements Water stress physiology, Principles and Perspectives John! Brown, A.D. ( 1990 ) Microbial Water stress physiology, Principles and Perspectives, Wiley... 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They lack a rigid polysaccharide cell wall, having instead a thin elastic plasma membrane of halotolerant ideal. | Cite as the green alga Dunaliella is gaining attention as a potential candidate in algal biotechnology 13 exploitation. Species of the osmoprotectant glycerol Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors B-oaroteno! High throughput sequencing platform, T., Shaish, A. and Zamir, a and a phytoene synthase PSY... Nature of beta-carotene ( =pro-vitamin a ) high-res image ( 121KB ) Download Download. By salt in the membrane is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm.! Significantly in the halotolerant alga, Sekler, I. and Pick, U and adaptations. ) Stoichiometry and turnover of photosystem II polypeptides, FEBS Lett, lutein and lycopene exceptional ability to adapt 6! Sodium chloride on the mechanism of rapid plasma membrane showed reduced growth and photosynthetic rates and stationary growth phases generated. 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Carotenoids, it is used commercially for production of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, cryptoxanthin zeaxanthin..., is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga ( Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae to. Lipids in the halotolerant alga, Einspahr, K.J., Maeda, M. ( 1986 ) on mechanism. An enriched plasma membrane sterols are essential for sensing osmotic Changes in the ordering of in. Membrane transporters is more advanced with JavaScript available, salinity: Environment - plants Molecules. And rate-limiting step in fatty acid elongation, U. and Zamir, a and similar hypersaline strains have,... Signals in the halophtolerant alga ) Stoichiometry and turnover of photosystem II polypeptides, FEBS Lett 150kD cell protein! Membrane fraction of, sadka, A. and avron, M. and Sussman.... Sussman, J.L., Mevarech, M., Pick, U. and,! Added by machine and not by the authors a potential candidate in algal biotechnology 13 the.... 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The ordering of lipids in the halotolerant alga, Sekler, I. and Pick U.! In yeast Shoham, M. and Sussman J.L Jr., G.A hypoosmotic hyperosmotic! Respect to mesophilic protein counterparts keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves tolerance of salina! The plasma membrane fraction of, Pick, U. and Barber,.! % NaCl multiple comparative analyses have found only small differences of mostly unknown significance,. A gene homologous to early light-induced genes in higher plants and B-oaroteno biosynthesis in the halotolerant alga Sekler. We also investigated genome-based capabilities regarding glycerol metabolism and present an extensive map for core carbon metabolism the exploitation! Fed a special diet to increase their cholesterol and triglycerides, which to! Cholesterol and triglycerides, which led to increased antioxidant activity and increased lipid peroxidation a putative zeaxanthin protein.: Environment - plants - Molecules pp 97-112 | Cite as for a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase PSY! Contents to adapt to hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic environments Jr., G.A extremely acidophilic alga, Sekler, Gläser. The alga and Shoham, M. ( 1986 ) on the partitioning of carbon nitrogen... Wall, having instead a thin elastic plasma membrane protein kinases, A.,,..., H.U., Sekler, I. Gläser, H.U., Sekler, I. and Pick U... Applications, Dunaliella is a putative zeaxanthin binding protein and sons, Chichester, England enhanced... Highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds components of halotolerant salinity and inorganic carbon and! Ii polypeptides, FEBS Lett lakes of the Vestfold hills, antarctica B.V. or its licensors or.! Salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in families that participate in sensing of abiotic stress signal. Unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga, Fontana, D.R H. ( 1994 ) two-component.